Compiling a Bibliography

APA style(American Psychological Association: APA) Visit website

  • Compilation style set by the American Psychological Association(American Psychological Association: APA)
  • Mainly used in social science fields (psychology, education, etc.), and also used in some natural science fields (biology, botany, earth science, etc.)

Compiling a bibliography by type

유형별 참고문헌 작성법
Type In-Text Citation(example) Reference(example)
Narrative citations Parenthetical citations
Book Sheril(1956) (Sheril, 1956) Sheril, R. D. (1956). The terrifying future: Contemplating color television. San Diego: Halstead.
Smith & Peter(1992) (Smith & Peter, 1992)
Journal article Stegmeir(2016) (Stegmeir, 2016) Smith, J., & Peter, Q. (1992). Hairball: An intensive peek behind the surface of an enigma.Hamilton, ON: McMaster University Press.
Grade et al.(2019) (Grady et al., 2019)
Thesis and Dissertation Ward(1998) (Ward, 1998) Stegmeir, M. (2016). Climate change: New discipline practices promote college access. The Journal of College Admission, (231), 44–47.
Microfilm U.S. Census Bureau(1880) (U.S. Census Bureau, 1880) Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States.Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217.
Electronic Book O’Keefe(2013) (O’Keefe, 2013) Ward, I. (1998). Sedimentary History of the Pandora Wreck and Surrounds. Masters thesis, James Cook University, Townsville.
Electronic article Carey(2019) (Carey, 2019) U.S. Census Bureau. (1880). 1880 U.S. census: Defective, dependent, and delinquent classes schedule: Virginia [Microfilm]. NARA Microfilm Publication T1132 (Rolls 33–34), National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC, United States.
Webpage World Health Organization(2018) (World Health Organization, 2018) O’Keefe, E. (2013). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Online Originals. Retreived from.

MLA Style(Modern Language Association of America: MLA) Visit website

  • Reference format created by the Modern Language Association of America, mainly used in the humanities field
  • The MLA template provides two types of citations: footnotes and in-text citations.
Matters related to the notation of book titles/academic journal names
  • Using the traditional MLA method, square quote symbols (「」, 『』) are not used. But in Korea, square quotes are used instead of italics given the poor readability of italics. Alternatively, bold font may be used instead of square quotes.
  • When compiling a bibliography, follow the MLA style as default. But you can use larger square quotes (『』) for publications in Korean, and smaller square quotes (「」) for journal titles.
Matters related to authors
  • For Korean authors, write their names as they are, while for overseas authors, write in order of the “last name, first name.”
  • Sort the bibliography list in alphabetical order by the authors’ last name (가나다, ABC).
  • Omit the author's given name when citing other materials by the same author.
    ex) Drabble, Margaret. Introduction. Stories, by Doris Lessing, Alfred A. Knopf, 2008, pp. vii-xvii. Everyman's Library 316. ---. The Millstone. Harcourt Brace, 1998.

Compiling a bibliography by type

유형별 참고문헌 작성법
Type Footnote In-Text Citation(example) Reference(example)
Book Baron1)은….
1) N. Baron, "Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media," PMLA 128.1 (2013): 197.
Citations (in-text notes) in the main text shall be in the form of “(author, page).

(Baron 197).
According to Baron's study, ··· (194).(Baron et al. 194).
LavenderIII, Isiah.Race in American science fiction. Indiana University Press, 2011.
Burdick, Anne, et al. Digital_Humanities. MIT Press, 2012.
Journal article Baron, Naomi S. "Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media.", PMLA 128.1 (2013): 193-200.
Grady, Jessica Stoltzfus, et al. "Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States." Psychology of Popular Media Culture 8.3 (2019): 207.
Thesis and Dissertation Stolley, Karl. Toward a Conception of Religion as a Discursive Formation: Implications for Postmodern Composition Theory. MA thesis. Purdue University, 2002.
Electronic article Goldman, Anne. "Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante." The Georgia Review64.1 (2010): 69-88. JSTOR,
Webpage Hollmichel, Stefanie. "The Reading Brain: Differences between Digital and Print."So Many Books.25 Apr. 2013,

Vancouver Style Visit website

  • in 1978, editors of medical journals held an informal meeting in Vancouver, Canada, to create journal writing templates and guidelines.
  • Mainly used in clinical and biomedical fields.
Matters related to the bibliography
  • Numbers or superscripts are indicated in parentheses ( ) in the order of citation, and the same number as written within the reference.
  • When references are cited continuously in the paper, the same number is used.
  • References are written in the order in which they are cited in the text, and the journal title is written in abbreviated form according to the Index Medicus standard. The author's name is written with full names for Asian names, and surnames and initials for others.
  • For journal dissertation titles and book titles, only the first word is capitalized.
  • Index Medicus:
In-Text Citation
vancouver 참고문헌_01.jpg
vancouver 참고문헌_02.jpg

Compiling a bibliography by type

유형별 참고문헌 작성법
Type Reference(example)
Book 1. Hoppert M. Microscopic techniques in biotechnology. Weinheim (Germany): Wiley-VCH; 2003.
2.GilstrapLC,CunninghamFG,VanDorstenJP,editors.Operativeobstetrics. 2nded.NewYork:McGraw-Hill;2002.
Journal article 1. Drummond PD. Triggers of motion sickness in migraine sufferers. Headache. 2005;45(6):653-6.
2.DiabetesPreventionProgramResearchGroup.Hypertension,insulin,andproinsulininparticipantswithimpairedglucosetolerance. Hypertension.2002;40(5):679-86.
3.AhrarK,MadoffDC,GuptaS,WallaceMJ,PriceRE,WrightKC.Developmentofalargeanimalmodelforlungtumors. JVascIntervRadiol.2002;13(9Pt1):923-8.
Electronic Book 1. van Belle G, Fisher LD, Heagerty PJ, Lumley TS. Biostatistics: a methodology for the health sciences [e-book]. 2nd ed. Somerset (NJ): Wiley InterScience; 2003 [cited 2005 Jun 30]. Available from:
2. Lee HC, Pagliaro EM. Serology: blood identification. In: Siegel J, Knupfer G, Saukko P, editors. Encyclopedia of forensic sciences [e-book]. San Diego: Academic Press; 2000 [cited 2005 Jun 30]:1331-8. Available from:
Newspaper article 1. Hatch, B. Smoke lingers for those who keep hospitality flowing. Australian Financial Review. 2006 Jul 13:14.
2.Lampathakis,P.Tantrumsseenassuicidewarning. TheWestAustralian[Internet]. 1997Aug11[cited2001Nov21]: 26.Availablefrom:
Microform 1. Terry KW, Hewson GS, Rowe MB. Characterisation of inhaled dusts at minesites [microfiche]. Perth: Minerals and Energy Research Institute of Western Australia; 1998.